Friday, June 5, 2020
Analyzing Emotional Labour as a Challenge to Nurses: Hildegard Peplau Theory (Annotated Bibliography Sample) Content: Name:Tutor:Course:Date: Analyzing Emotional Labour as a Challenge to NursesHildegard Peplau TheoryNursing interpersonal relation with her patients is a critical issue that the medical experts take caution of when handling. In an attempt to solve the problem, Hildegard Peplau published a theory in 1952 and 1968 known as the Theory of Interpersonal Relations (D'Antonio et al.). In her concept, Peplau proposes four sequential phases that make interpersonal relations when nurses deal with their patients. The stages include orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution.Firstly, the orientation phase identifies the problem, which begins when the patient meets the nurse as a stranger. Progressively, the phase continues to define the sort of services the patient needs. Ideally, the patient asks assistance from the nurses by telling them their needs, as questions and share expectations based on experiences. Clearly, the orientation phase is a process in which the n urse assesses the patients health and scenario. Secondly, the identification phase takes shape when the health professional selects the appropriate assistance to the patient. At this stage, the patient develops a feeling of belonging and capability of dealing with the problem, hence, reducing the hopelessness and the sadness. Evidently, this step enhances the development of a nursing plan customized to the patients situation and goals. Thirdly, the exploitation phase occurs when the patients acquire professional services. Ideally, the patient develops the feeling of integration due to the environment that the nurses create. During this stage, the patients may make minor requests or seek attention from the nurses. Lastly, the final one is the resolution phase that involves the termination of a professional relationship after patients get the medical assistance from health practitioners. Importantly, Peplau advises that the nurse should employ interview techniques when communicating w ith patients. Such technology enables nurses to explore, understand, and deal with the imminent problem. Additionally, the nurses must know the various communication stages because the patients independence is likely to stagger. Nevertheless, nurses should help patients move towards the final phase by implementing a nursing plan that is goal-oriented. Cautiously, Peplau asserts that it is necessary for nurses to terminate any bond between them and patients upon completion of the task. As such, her theory is important to the study topic in that it empowers nurses, who face difficulty in handling emotional attachment to the patients. In other words, such health professionals find the fundamental ideas on how to cope with the situation without interfering with their profession. Literature ReviewGray, Benjamin. 'The Emotional Labour of Nursing 1: Exploring the Concept.' Nursing Times 105.8 (2009) 26-29. Web. 4 July 2015In his article, Gray analyzes the emotional labour that nurses and o ther medical practitioners face and its implications for the nursing practice. The author asserts that the future research on emotional energy should associate other professions, relatives, as well as patients (26). Again, he insists that there is the need to research more on factors such a gender, personal, and professional barriers since they hamper the recognition of emotional labour. Ideally, Gray refers to emotional labour as the suppression of feelings to maintain an outward outlook that indicates any sense of care in a convivial place (26). He continues to illustrate that emotional labour happens in face-to-face interaction with the public when workers produce an emotional feeling in front of another individual. For instance, nurses are expected to attach emotionally to control their patients. Most importantly, Grays work is a rich source of literature concerning the problem of the emotional attachment of nurses to their patients. The author does not only give models of emoti onal labour in health settings but also gives implications of his study to future nursing. For example, he says that nurses usually divide their patients depending on how well or bad such patients are (28). Health care professionals consider patients who resist professional help as bad ones while those cooperating are classified as healthy patients. Clearly, such stratification of patients strains the interpersonal relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, hence, playing the concept of emotional labor on the nurses. Overall, Grays work is intense because it borrows from other scholars to make his arguments firm. Lachman, Vicki D. 'Strategies Necessary for Moral Courage. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 15.3 (2010): n. p. Web. 4 July. 2015.Secondly, Lachman also highlights some important issues concerning the emotional attachment that a nurse may feel towards their patients. Practically, he borrows a lot from other authors such as Nightingale to explain the concept that moral, as virtue is very necessary for the healthcare sector. The author reminds that the existing professional nursing associations such as the American Nursing Association (ANA) give the explicit code of ethics for the nurse and other health care professionals to follow. However, given the intermediary nature of the health care setting, sometimes the ethical dilemmas possess emotional labour to medical practitioner overwhelmingly. For instance, the nurses need to keep the professional distance from their patients to uphold integrity, but what if sometimes neglecting a particular code of ethics enables a nurse to save patients life. The author sums up the argument by insisting that nurses must uphold the values at any cost to avoid any liability whatsoever. However, she proposes that the relationship between emotional labour and moral dilemma needs scrutiny. Critically, Lachmans work contributes to the issue of emotional labour by illustrating how ethics may also be a burden to those practices; hence, it creates emotional attachment, especially to the health care practitioners. Sawbridge, Yvonne, and Alistair Hewison. 'Thinking About the Emotional Labour of Nursing Supporting Nurses to Care.' Journal of Health Organization and Management 127.1 (2013): 127 - 133. Web. 4 July 2015.Sawbridge and Hewson portray some of the issues that nurses face in the line of work, which promotes to the emotional burden they feel. They assert that most hospitals have no appropriate measures and conditions to enable nurses cope with their emotional labour problem. Interestingly, this article acknowledges the fact that health care professionals face a challenge when it comes to handling their patients (130). Some practitioners find it challenging to offer the needed emotional support to patients in helping them recover well. On the contrary, some nurses get over emotions when treating patients, a phenomenon that is ethical, according to medical ethics. The auth ors insist health institutions should create a favourable environment that facilitates nurses in dealing with their emotional burden. Ideally, Sawbridge and Hewson are critical to this study research because it illustrates that even hospitals and other medical facilities should play a role in helping their workers cope with emotional challenges. Msiska, Gladys, Pam Smith, and Tonks Fawcett. 'Exposing Emotional Labour Experienced by Nursing Students During their Clinical Le...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
We live in a fast paced, to-go world. We go to coffee shops and order a tall, grande, small, large, jumbo; we order blended, skinny, with or without tapioca. There are coffee shops at every street corner it seems, and which one to choose can be a daunting task. Here in Houston I have found three favorites, one of which is a chain, the other two which are smaller and more local: Starbucks, Dirks (formally Dietrich s,) and Fioza. Starbucks, a nationwide chain with hours varying, offers a semi-quaint setting, a plethora of coffees, teas, and snacks, and usually pretty fast service for their customers. Unfortunately, Starbucks also offers high prices and long lines (if you happen to be the poor soul who arrives at just the right time.) The choices are many, and the ambiance affords space for Wi-Fi hot spot and comfy chairs for chit-chat with friends. Dirks, formally known as Dietrich s, is an alternative to Starbucks with comparable prices. Dirks has two locations in midtown. While Di rks has a smaller menu and less seating, their boheme flair makes up for what they lack. Their staff is fun; the environment is more than appropriate for meeting up with friends, enjoying the weather on the patio and outside seating, or relaxing inside with a copy of any of their free publications (The Houston Press, Leisure Learning, Indigo Sun, Natural Awakenings, and more!) Lastly is a small, less well known coffee/tea shop in the Meyerland area called Fioza. Fioza is centrally located onShow MoreRelatedStarbucks And Mcdonalds : Building Global Brands867 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStarbucks and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s: Building Global Brands McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Starbucks are two of the largest successful American companies operating in the global marketplace. Their popular iconic brands are recognized around the globe. Both Starbucks and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s face the challenging task of managing brand image in multiple locations. They must maintain the uniqueness that grew them to success, but also appeal to the desires of local populations. While there have been some ups and downs over the yearsRead MoreStarbucks - Entry Modes Of Starbucks970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. INTRODUCTION Starbucks, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global coffeehouse, has one of the best coffee chains and providers in the world. It was started in 1971 by 3 friends (Jerry, Zev and Gordon), they were passionate about the idea of selling fresh coffee beans. Things started to change when Schultz wanted to develop this business into coffee serving with friendly sitting environment. The idea of serving coffee along with sitting culture made a hit and started its own development in fast-paced way. According to theRead MoreStarbuckss Marketing Plan For Starbucks1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor Starbucks, it was interesting to review a multinational company that operates in 62 countries and has 19,000 stores (Starbucks Corporation, 2013). It is apparent that success lives within the offerings of high quality coffee with a 3 billion base of customers enjoying the products. The company has a strong commitment to buying and serving high-quality coffee and consumers have savored the coffee and the prestigious brand. Starbucks arsenal not only consists of the signature Starbucks brandRead MoreStarbucks : A Brand Company Essay931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA company that I frequently visit on a semi-regular basis is Starbucks. Starbucks is a popular company that is recognized internationally and specializes in premium roast coffee, as well as other beverages. Starbucks, according to The Richest, is currently the power house of the coffee world. They are not only known for selling high qua lity coffee, but also providing an inviting atmosphere with good music and comfortable seats. StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ mission is, Ã¢â¬Å"to inspire and nurture the human spirit one personRead MoreOrganizational Culture Has Been Driven And Empowered By The Founder And Ceo1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Howard Shultz. In the case of the success of Starbucks, its organizational culture has been driven and empowered by the founder and CEO, Howard Schultz. Howard wanted to expand the company and when he visited Italy prior to the overhaul of the original Starbucks he wanted to mirror the concepts of the coffeehouses in Italy. The key aspect to realize here is that organizational culture affects performance. Howard Schultz became the CEO of Starbucks in 1987. As an entrepreneur, he was influentialRead MoreHoward Schultz : Marketing Team For Starbucks1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHoward Schultz joined the marketing team for Starbucks in 1982. After a visit to Italy he became fascinated by what the Italian coffee bars meant to the social culture of the city of Milan. He assumed that Starbucks could do something similar here in America. He later bought the company from the founders and began to open chain coffee shops across the Northwest United States. Since his takeover the company has expanded and been v ery profitable but recently, there has been a decline in customer satisfactionRead MoreGlobal Local And International Trading990 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesproject adopts the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëglobal-local nexusÃ¢â¬â¢ using the case study of Starbucks in Vietnam to examine how a global brand operates in a domestic context and the cultural forms arise from that. The essay will first explore the practices that Starbucks company employs to adapt to the Southeast Asian countryÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, then examines its significant impact on this market, and finally how the local react to the coming of Starbucks. The analysis reveals that the global-local blend is created by the adaptationRead MoreVictoria Geisen. Professor Bolduc. Bus180. October 19,1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthose needs. Although there are smoothie restaurants and coffee shops already in existence, my business plan would be to create a cafÃ © that provided healthy smoothies along with delicious gourmet coffees. Long lines can be found every morning at Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts containing hundreds of college students, working people, and Java lovers Awaiting their first sip of morning coffee and a breakfast replacement. My business plan would be to tap into that market by serving not only gourmet coffeesRead MoreEssay about Mgt 5001528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ Strategy Assignment 1 By: Allen Jones Luna 28 October 2013 MGT 500: Modern Management Professor: Dr. Tony Muscia Suggest the key elements of StarbucksÃ¢â¬â¢ Organizational Culture that contribute to its success in a global economy. Indicate managementÃ¢â¬â¢s role with creating and sustaining the organizational culture. Organizational culture has a significant impact on the overall performance of a company. Organizational culture is Ã¢â¬Å"theRead MoreWhat Is Coffee? A Sociological Perspective1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperson are due to their own problems and not societies. In this paper, I have analyzed the sociological perspective of an everyday drink, coffee. Coffee is no longer a pure drink. Instead, it has become a necessity for everyone trying to keep up in the fast pace world without falling behind and has created many outcomes in the world. The historical evolution of coffee dates back to thousands of years ago. Many myths had been created to when coffee had first started; one certain myth leads back to Ethiopia
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The transitional life span following toddlerhood is early childhood. Early childhood begins at the age of 4 years old to 6 years old. During the early childhood stage young children become very physically active, their language become more complex, and the evolution of imaginative and elaborate nature of play occurs. Young children at the early childhood stage also begin preschool. According to Piaget, a child at the early childhood begins to have more of an abstract and logical way of thinking. Literature Review The article related to the biological aspect of early childhood discusses the different theories and research based on play from infancy to early childhood. The article includes PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on child play, SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Type IA, which is the projection of symbolic schemes onto new objects, is the first level of symbolic play describe by Piaget (Casby 2003). A child that has pretended to be sleep as a form of play now tells their parents that their baby doll or stuff animal is pretending to be sleep is an example of how a child applies a previous action that they have performed themselves and directs that action onto other people or object. Piaget suggests that when a child redirects the action from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self, i.e., pretending to be sleep, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior has become symbolic (Casby 2003). The second level of symbolic play is Type IB, which is the projection of imitative schemes (Casby 2003). During the Type IB level children begin to imitate the action of their parents, siblings, other children, or anyone around them. For example, a child pretending to crochet while watching their grandmother and a group of their grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s friends crocheting. The simple identification of one object with another is Type IIA, which is the third level of symbolic play described by Piaget (Casby 2003). During the level of Type IIA a child may take an object and treat the object as if it represented another object. For example, a young child singing into the television remote control as if the remote control is a microphone. When a child pretends that they are a particular animal or a monster would be an example of the fourth level of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s observationShow MoreRelatedSocial Learning And Environmental Determinants Of Psychopathy1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescaused by biolo gical, environmental, and psychological factors that result in both interpersonal/affective deficits and social deviance/antisocial behaviors. It can be broken down into primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Primary psychopathy mainly encompasses the interpersonal/affective components of psychopathy, such as superficial charm, lack of empathy, remorse or guilt, and manipulative tactics. These aspects of psychopathy are typically life-long and caused by biological deficits.Read MoreThe Issue Of Child Onset Schizophrenia Essay1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFurther, little research has been done of childhood onset schizophrenia (Hollis, 2003). However, research has shown that individuals with an earlier onset or diagnosis experience more persistent and debilitating symptoms than those with an older age of onset (Findling Schulz, 2005). Along with a higher occurrence of more severe symptoms, child onset schizophrenia is a complicated issue because children are being prescribed psy chotropic medications at an early age during a period of critical brain developmentRead MoreThe Role Of Nature And Nurture Development At Childhood Stages1603 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Childhood Development StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name University Name Ã¢â¬Æ' Childhood Development Introduction Twins who have the same genetic makeup raised up in a different environment have portrayed variation in performance and other dynamics of intelligence quotients, physical development, and socioemotional development. Research on adoptions has also revealed interesting results concerning biological and nature in the development of the children. Therefore, this raises the question about the roles of nature andRead MoreAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( Adhd )1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswithin highly structured environments, such as school. PhelpsÃ¢â¬â¢s teachers noted his hyperactivity as early as preschool, and often complained to his mother that he was a disturbance in class (Winerip). His mother, Deborah Phelps, notes the most critical comment she had ever heard: Ã¢â¬Å"Your son will never be able to focus on anythingÃ¢â¬ (Winerip). The disorder manifested itself in all aspects of MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood, placing a great strain on his family. After his formal diagnosis with the psychological disorderRead MorePersonality Is Defined As The Combination Of Characteristics944 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof theoretical traditions. The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, evolutionary, and social learning perspective. This paper will be describing the psychodynamic theory and how its approach signifies oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. The psychodynamic theory was originated by Sigmund Freud in the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s into the early 19th century from 1856-1939. Sigmund Freud developed the personality theory psychodynamics to determine how oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personalityRead MoreA Large Number Of Children Around The World Especially1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa central aspect in childhood obesity. Essentially, there are divided opinions on whether the propensity to conserve calories and fat in the body, which leads to obesity, is caused by biological factors (nature) or psychosocial as well as behavioral factors (nurture). This essay will argue that childhood obesity results from the interaction of nature and nurture, with the latter contributing the most to this health problem. Heredity has been found to be an important factor in childhood obesity. AccordingRead MoreLifespan Development945 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnecessary for dev. * Sensitive Period- Certain kind of stimuli in environment. * Development is constructed thru biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together. * Development is lifelong * Early adulthood is not the endpoint of development * No age perios dominates * Development is Multidimensional * Consist of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions * Multiple components within each dimension * Health and Well-Being Read MoreTaking a Look at Biological Criminology1240 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBiological criminology began many years ago along with the scientist Cesare Lombroso. He believed that criminals are born, not made. A Ã¢â¬Å"born criminalÃ¢â¬ , is a Ã¢â¬Å"defective individualÃ¢â¬ , whom has natural or instinctive tendencies towards low types of social life. (Biosocial and Psychological Theories, Feb. 11, 2014) Biological criminology believes criminals are genetically determined but face major shortcomings for being Ã¢â¬Å"simplistic, untestable, illogical, and often ideologicalÃ¢â¬ (Biosocial and PsychologicalRead MoreThe Biological, Psychological And Social Aspects Of Diseases784 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith the psychological aspects of patients. Often, I sat besides bewildered patients, listening to their stories of stigmatization and rejection in the community because of their appearance. I believed in adapting individual approaches to different personalit y types and cultural backgrounds. I was unwilling to accept everything at its face value but felt satisfied seeking for causes, asking questions, and above all analyzing the biological, psychological and social aspects of diseases. As I analyzedRead MoreThe Different Stages Of Human Development1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswas childhood (3-12 years) or also called the juvenile period consist of various features of its age group. Early to middle childhood features such as physical, emotional, cognitive, and social aspects have their growing and specific developments compared to other human developmental stages. Also, different theoretical perspectives will substantiate the selected developmental stage and which is most useful. The importance of the studies and different viewpoints will shed light on childhood structures
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Operating and Cash Conversion Cycles. Answer: Introduction: The approximate forecast of the company which it looks to obtain in the future with regard to its financial results is provided in a financial budget. This financial budget can be created on different basis it may be annually, monthly or quarterly. At the end of the period the budget is thoroughly checked for finding out the various reasons for delegation in financial results. During the period actual results of the company is compared with the budget as it has been forecasted for the purpose of taking actions on the actual results which is derived by the company. The purpose of comparison between the budget and the actual results is to understand the issues faced by the departments of the company and hence to act for the purpose of resolution of those issues. If the company opt for a static budget then assumption of the budget is make as per output of the business and in case there is deviation of actual output with respect to the budgeted numbers the static budget would not be good. So for the purpose of evaluation of the profit centre the company realizes the importance of flexible budget which helps in understanding the line items wise details of the income statement considering the same number of outputs and hence helps to take actions on the issues identified. For ex If a company budgeted 2000 units @ variable cost of $ 4/unit totaling to $ 8000 costs while if actual production decreased to 1700 units @ variable cost of $ 4.1/unit ,total cost amounting to $6970.Hence overall cost is lower , however, there is per unit cost has increased has company has to identify the reason for increase in variable cost. The purpose of the cash budget is understood the sources and uses of estimated cash requirement. Hence sales budget provides sources while production budget will provide the uses and for the purpose of production budget direct material budget is also required. The sales budget estimates the expected sales revenue for a particular period. Estimated sales revenue helps in understanding and estimating the cash inflows within the company. Favorable of unfavorable change in economic scenario will affect the estimated sales budget and hence the cash budget as well. The base on which production budget is created in the sales projection. Sales revenue used to project the output quantity required production budget provides the estimate with regard to finished goods to be kept hence change in production budget would eventually affect the cash budget as cash outflow is linked to production budget. Production budget is the base for material budget as the output quantity required determines the requirement of the direct material estimate. In case of change in economic condition impacting direct material cost would result in change in material budget and hence cash budget as well. Operating cycle refers to the time that has been taken by the company from acquisition of inventory and receipt of cash after sale of that inventory purchased. On the other hand, cash cycle refers to the number of days that has been to convert the resources into cash. The operating cycle and the cash conversion cycle are same but the operating cycle tests the operating efficiency of the company. On the other hand the cash conversion cycle tests the companys ability in managing the cash flow of the company. The operating and cash cycle helps in managing the working capital of the company in an efficient manner. Through the help of these cycles, the management can determine the time frame within money needs to be collected from the debtors and when the same needs to be paid to the creditors, Ratios like working capital ratio, cash conversion ratio, debt to equity ratio are used for better working capital management. Accounting isnt as important in the government organizations as it is in private enterprises, since the government does not have to worry about earning a profit. We do not support the above statement. Similar to a private organization, accounting is equally important for government organizations as well. The government and its organizations are equally responsible and answerable to the stakeholders i.e. the public for their activities. The profit that has been earned by the government is used by them for the welfare activities and for developing the economy. It is important for them to stay competitive in the market; however they are not supposed to run behind profit earning at the cost of the society. The funds that are collected by the government are used for developing infrastructure and for the purpose of providing various subsidies to the general public. Thus, the profit that has been earned by the government is indirectly being spent on the welfare of the society. Overall, it i s important for them to keep a check on the profit that has been earned by them on their activities and should follow all the accounting standards that are applicable on a normal company functioning in the country. The main purpose behind setting up a costing system is to ensure that the same provide adequate valuation of cost for the products. A costing system helps the firms to make proper estimates of the cost which is being used by them for determining the profitability of the products, for the purpose of inventory valuations and cost control. For manufacturing organizations, an adequate costing system is used for keeping a control check on the cost factor being the same is important determining the profitability of the firm. The essential purpose of a good costing system is as follows: It helps in subdivision and classification of cost. A costing system helps in better management of material, labor and overhead cost. Through the help of the costing system, management can very well do the budgeting exercise for the company. It helps in placing better standards which will help in judging the production efficiency It helps in determining whether the price of the final products that has been decided by the management is adequate or not. The costing system that has been used by the management has been treated as an instrument of control through which the management exercise control over the manufacturing exercise. It provides information to the management about special factors like seasonal variations in the volume and prices of the products. The manufacturing overheads allocation rate for Wonder Products is calculated as follows: Manufacturing overheads for the year $ 598,080 Total machine hours for the year 7,000 Allocated cost per hour $ 85.44 The administrative overhead allocation rate for Wonder Products is calculated as follows: Administrative overheads for the year $ 695,520 Direct labor hours for the year 14,000 Allocated cost per hour $ 49.68 Direct materials $ 19,000 Manufacturing overheads (400 hours*85.44) $ 34,176 Administrative overheads (750 hours*49.68) $ 37,260 Total Cost $ 90,436 Profit $ 36,174 Price $ 126,610 In the current world, overhead cost is a very important portion of the total cost of a product. It is not possible to determine the exact overhead cost that can be allocated to the product. In this scenario, the total overhead cost is allocated based on some allocating cost factor. Once the overhead cost is allocated we can reach out to the actual cost price of the product which is important in determining the sales price of the product. We generally face trouble in determining the actual cost drivers which are used in allocating thehe operating and cash cycle helps in managing the working capi overhead cost of the product. There are different techniques that has been by the management with includes the traditional approach and the ABC costing techniques. The companies prefer using the budgeted rate for overhead allocation rather than using actual rate of overhead. The budgeted rate that has been determined by the management is majorly based on the actual overhead rate for the last years. Due to time frame, the actual rates of overhead is available at year end, and the cost of the product is determined in the very beginning being the company is required to make regular sales of its products. In this scenario, the management prefers budgeted rates for overhead allocation rather than using the actual rates. Bibliography Lodha, A., 2015. Top 11 Advantages of Good Cost Accounting System. [Online] Available at: https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/cost-accounting/top-11-advantages-of-good-cost-accounting-system/55229/ [Accessed 27 Sept 2017]. Nordmeyer, B., n.d. The Difference Between Operating Cash Conversion Cycles. [Online] Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-operating-cash-conversion-cycles-24738.html [Accessed 17 Sept 2017]. Ori, J., 2017. Difference Between Operating Cycle Cash Cycle. [Online] Available at: https://pocketsense.com/difference-between-operating-cycle-cash-cycle-1763.html [Accessed 17 Sept 2017].
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Assignment 2 Question 1 The first key concept I chose Is society, which Is described as people who Interact In a defined space and shared culture. This definition of society states clearly which variables are used to define and Judge something as a society which make up part of the social world. The second key concept that I chose Is sociocultural evolution, which is the process of change that results from a societVs gaining new information. This term showed me the importance of social change and creates separate social periods which the world went through. The third key concept is New Industrializing Countries (NIC), which are lower-income countries that are quickly becoming high- income ones. This showed me how fickly our social world is and that it is relatively easy to change your ways, if you are able to get the means and have the will power. The fourth key concept I chose is bureaucracy, which is the model for modern business, government agencies, trade unions and universities. We will write a custom essay sample on Society and Social Groups: Assignment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I have heard this term my whole life, but never realized, until now, the Importance and influence of bureaucracy In the world. The last key concept that I chose Is rationalization of society, which Is the historical change from tradltlon to rationality as the dominant mode of human thought. This concept helped me understand the humongous changes the social world has gone through. Also that the transition went slowly but surely, that every step we made helped us grow. Question 2 Marx expressively stated historical differences in productive systems for the emergence of the modern world, but also pointed out the persistence of social conflict in the human history. Weber tells us that modern societies are guided by ationality Instead of tradition which guided the pre-industrial societies. Durkenheim says that In the modern Industrial societies, mechanical solidarity, based on moral consensus, Is overtaken by organic solidarity, which Is based on productive speclallzatlon. I like bits and pieces of all three theories to be honest. The way we started thinking for ourselves from Webers theory, the thought that society influences us more than we thing from Durkenheims theory and how Marxs theory was one of the first to state the differences between the social classes. I prefer Marx the most, ecause his theory says that the economy dominates all other social institutions when it comes to giving direction to society, which I am realizing more and more. Organizations and seemingly governments are making decisions based more on how to earn or save money, than instead on what is the best option or solution. Question 3 An Important part of our society are the social groups In which we find ourselves. Social groups consists out of people with shared Interests, experiences and loyalties. embers share personal and enduring relationships, and secondary social groups, arge and impersonal social groups whose members pursue a specific interest or activity. Even though we do not like to believe it, most of us conform to fit in a group. The power of peer pressure shapes our behaviour from a young age throughout our adulthood. Most of the time, we use these groups as our reference groups, a social group that we use as a reference in making evaluations or decision s. Formal organizations are secondary groups that want to perform hard tasks in the most efficient way. They can be grouped in utilitarian, normative or coercive organizations. Bureaucracy is a organization model created to perform complex tasks efficiently. There are six key elements to an ideal bureaucratic organization: hierarchy of offices, rules and regulations, technical competence, impersonality and formal, written communications. However, there are some problems with bureaucracy; alienation, inefficiency and ritualism, inertia and abuse of power. Humanizing bureaucracy is to recognize people as the greatest organization source there is. We are part of the network age. Social networks are used to link people all over the world. These developments are chancing group relations. Question 6 McDonaldization of society should be resisted in terms of a social world. The four principles of McDonaldization (efficiency, calculability, uniformity and predictability, control through automation) are great for organization as McDonalds, from which we expect quick results. However, as stated in the book, a lot of things are becoming automated to make actions happen quicker, with a smaller error margin. This decreases the intervention of humans, decreases human creativity . We are interacting less and less because of the increasing use of machines instead of humans.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Cross Cultural Studies Essays - Cultural Geography, Free Essays Cross Cultural Studies Question: What is the value of making cross-cultural comparisons? (Miller, Pg#11: 1999) Cultural anthropology encompasses all aspects of human beliefs, behaviors and ideas. What would the world be like without any knowledge of other cultures? Anthropologists study different cultures to be more understanding and accepting, more appreciative and to enrich our own culture. What is the real problem with the Ku Klux Klan? Perhaps, if they took the time to understand the African-American and Jewish cultures, for example, they would be more accepting of the diversity. Hundreds of years of cultural imperialism has evolved into a legion of hate. Emic studies put the researcher in the middle of the culture, free to interact and discover a new life style. After a few months or even a year in a different culture, one has a better understanding of the lifestyle, and understanding leads to acceptance. Once people, especially powerful political leaders, learn cultural relativism war will be a practice of the past and only discussed in history classes. Another reason for cross-cultural comparison is to make us more appreciative of our own culture and environment. For example, members of the Peace Corp volunteer months to years of their lives to live and help in third world countries. They may not be there with the purpose of studying culture, however, living among the people and having to adapt to their way of life gives them a first-hand experience of a third world life. Seeing the way life is without any luxuries make us realize how convenient our lives are. Plentiful amounts of food, clean water, stable shelter and adequate clothing are just a few of the many luxuries that our culture sees as essentials. Many volunteers return from the Peace Corp and adopt a new way of life; much less extravagant than the one they led before. Finally, we study other cultures to enrich our own. Where would Canadian culture be without the influence of the French, Italian, Chinese, and all the other cultures that form the cultural mosaic that defines Canada? Without the mixture of cultures in our country, we would still be eating meat and potatoes for every meal. The cultural blend that has come together to make up Canada, but yet retain their own individualities, work together to make a hybrid culture created from the best of all that are combined. In conclusion, we see that without cross-cultural comparisons life would be boring and monotonous. Learning about other cultures makes us more understanding, accepting, and appreciative of the diversity. No more war, no more racism and no more ethnic cleansing once ethnocentrism and cultural imperialism are abolished. Cultural diversity is the spice of life.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Winning at Change - Essay Example The ingredients for good communication are that it needs to be direct and personal and not lean through memos; it should be correct as a precise message produces best results; euphoria is to be avoided at small achievements and the larger goal must be pursued relentlessly until realized; and the blame game must be abandoned. Change programmes should have a large spread with timeline for each segment. Within this smaller goals are easier to understand and become achievable. Effective partnerships must be built with various stakeholders first by engaging the right persons within the organisation for each job and then making strategic partnerships to cement relations with outsiders. Teamwork is essential and forming a winning team means building confidences and delegating authority. The vision is the binding force and it must be meaningful and beneficial for everyone. The intentions must be clear; ambitious but practical. Conflicts between stakeholders must be resolved through give and take, keeping the vision in mind. An organisation has leaders at all levels and each one performs the universal task of explaining the vision and encouraging others to step up their efforts in achieving them. Leadership is critical in change management and a leader is dynamic and caring and the organisational transformation depends entirely on them. A successful transformation requires eight steps. First a hard look at ground realities of market conditions, potential crises or opportunities will establish the need and the urgency for transformation. Secondly, forging coalitions or partnerships and encouraging teamwork to ensure smooth functioning. Thirdly, a clear vision is required to create motives and strategies. Fourthly, the effective communication of vision through any mean is necessary to galvanize actions. Next, people must be empowered and barriers and obstacles must be removed; thinking out of the box